Terminology

 

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       Korean Terminology Project for Geom-Beop

Korea and its Flag

The Korean name for Korea is "Hangeuk" and its people are called "Hangeuksaram". The ancient name for Korea is "Choson", which means literally "the land of morning calm" and comes from the "Choson" (or "Yi") dynasty of Korea's history (1392-1905). The name "Korea" comes from the "Koryu" dynasty of Korea's history (935-1392) during which westerners had their first contact with Korea.

The national anthem of Korea is "Aeguk Ka" ("Love of Country"). It was written during the Japanese occupation of Korea (circa 1905-1945) and was later set to music by Ahn Eak Tai.

The Korean flag is called "Taeguk-ki" and was adopted in August of 1882, not long after the "Hermit Kingdom" opened its front and back doors to foreign aggressive powers. The central theme of the flag is that although there is constant movement within the sphere of infinity, there is also balance and harmony. The flag consists of three parts: a white field (or background), a red and blue circle in the center of the flag (containing a "yin-yang" like symbol), and four black trigrams surrounding the circle in each of the four corners of the flag.

The circle in the center is called "Taeguk" and means the origin of all things in the universe. The red and blue paisleys within the circle represent eternal duality (heaven-earth, fire-water, good-evil, male- female, dark-light, life-death). The blue portion of the circle is called "um" and represents the negative aspects of this duality; the red portion of the circle is called "yang" and represents the positive aspects. "Um-yang" is the Korean equivalent of "yin-yang".

The four black trigrams come from the Chinese book of "I Ch'ing". The trigrams also carry the idea of opposites and of balance. Each trigram (or "gye") consists of three parallel lines, some of which are broken (split), and some of which are unbroken (solid). Each gye has a specific name and represents one or more concepts: In the upper left-hand corner is "K'un" which consists of all solid lines and represents heaven, east, and spring; In the lower right-hand corner is "K'on" which consists of all broken lines and represents earth, west, and summer; In the upper right-hand corner is "Kam" which consists of one solid line surrounded by two broken lines and represents water, north, and winter; In the lower left-hand corner is "I" which consists of one broken line surrounded by two solid lines and represents fire, south, and autumn.

Five Tenets  (“O-Gae”) of Geom-Beop

Ch’ung

:

Loyalty to One’s Country

Hyo

:

Fealty to One’s Parents

Shim

:

Fidelity to One’s Friends

Yong

:

Courage in the face of Injustice

Im 

:

Benevolence to all.    

Yaejul: Dojang Etiquette

:

Dignity towards the flag. 

:

Respect towards the teacher.

:

Respect towards each other

Three Principles of Geom-Beop  

Ki

:

Spirit (Energy) or Mind (Intention); "gi" (

Geom

:

Sword: in the general sense; "geom" ()

Chae

:

 Body; "che" ()

Titles

Do ju  nim

 Keeper of the Art

Kwan jang nim

 Director, “mentor” or Head of dojang

 ( 관장  (館長) )

Son-Saeng-nim

Respectful form of "Son-saeng-” which means “teacher” but is likewise a general term of address not unlike “mister”.

Tarin

Master  달인 (達人)

Chido Sabôm

Master  지도사 (指導師範)

Sabum(Nim)

Instructor: commonly a 4th Dan and above who is a qualified instructor of a particular subject of study that is usually sports related. (사붐 (師傅) )

Sun bae nim

Senior student 

Hu bae nim

junior student

Hak  Seng

student

Suryun  Seng

trainee

Geup

Rank or grade

Kodanja

4th dan or higher고단자 (高段者)

Yudanja

A black-belt of any grade ( 유단자   (有段者 )  

Ch’odan

1st dan. Lit.: Peginning of holding a rank   (初段)

dan

Degree

Checha

Believer, disciple or follower ( 제자   弟子)

Commands

Jonglee

line up (also "ji hap" and "jung yul")

Charyot

“Come to attention”   차렷

Geuk  gi hyang ha yoh

face the flag

Jwa  woo hyang woo

Face  each other

Sah  bum nim keh

Face  instructor/master

Sun  bae nim keh

Face  senior student

Simsa  kwan nim keh

Face  examiner/tester

Gyeong  nye

Bow ( 경례  敬禮 )

Ahnjoe

Sit down

Chak seo

Sit down

Soom-chig-gi

Breathing Control

Danjon ho-hup 

Abdominal breathing mediation

Kool o angi

Kneel  (kneeling)

Bah ro angi

Sit  in cross-legged or relaxed position

Muk sang

Meditation (lit: “contemplation”)

Muk yum

Meditation (lit: “quiet thinking”)

Kun jol

Deep Bow

Ee-ro-suh

Stand up

Yip sŏk 

Stand up

Joon bi

“Ready” (준비  準備 )

Ppopa-kal

Drawing the sword. This is the native Korean word for ‘paldo.’ (   ) 뽑아칼

Paldo

Draw sword (발도  發刀 ); Draw sword from scabbard

Kkoch’a-k’al

Sheathe the sword. This is the native Korean word for ‘chakkôm.’ ( )꽃아칼

Chakkeom

Sheath sword (착검  ? )

Si jak

“pegin” ( 시작  始作 )

Ba ro

“Relax”; “return to ready stance”; “be at ease”  (바로 )

Swi-eo kal

“Rest your sword” ( )

Also: “Chi-ha-Se

Swi-eo

Relax

Dwi uro dorah

About  face

Dorah

Turn

Bahl bah kwah

Switch  your stance (switch your feet)

Koo ryung op see

In  your own time

Kalyeo

Break  (or stop)

Kae sok

Continue

Yeonsok hayo

Perform previous techniques in a sequence or continuously (連續) 하요

Gomahn

Stop  (also "mum cho")

Chase pakkuseyo

Change stance to face the rear (姿勢); "about face"

Dobok dahnjung

Fix  your uniform

Dhee  dahnjung

Fix  your belt

Hai  sahn

Class  dismissed (also "hae cho")

Korean Counting

Koreans use two number systems when counting. One derives from native words and the other from Chinese loan words. The native numbering system is analogous to ordinals, i.e. first, second, etc. The actual system used to count any given object seems to depend very much on the objects that are being counted. The numbers that are normally heard in the dojang are the Chinese loan words and are as follows

1

:

hanah

2

:

dool

3

:

set

4

:

net

5

:

dasot

6

:

yasot

7

:

ilgop

8

:

yadol

9

:

ahop

10

:

yool

The stress in "hanah", "dasot", and "yasot" is on the first syllable, in "ilgop", "yadol", and "ahop" on the second. In counting cadence in TaeKwonDo, this is so emphasized that the other syllable frequently almost disappears (e.g., "han", "das", "yos", "lgop", "hop", etc.).

The other numbering system (which is of Chinese origin) is used in most other cases and is often used where Americans would use ordinal numbers (such as "first", "second", etc ...) and is designated as the Sino-Korean system. For example, this second numbering system is used when describing a person's rank: a first degree black belt would be an "il dan". The first ten numbers in this numbering system are as follows:

The Chinese loan numbering is quite simple for numbers above 10. Just add the required units as prefixes (for the multiples of ten) and suffixes (for the units). The only difficulty is for numbers above a thousand. Chinese has breaks at 10,000, a hundred million, and a billion (American trillion). However, unless you enter into business or purchase a car or house in Korea then you are unlikely to come across numbers as large as these.

This numbering system based on Chinese loan numbers are as follows:
1
Il
2
I
3
Sam
4
Sa
5
O
6
Yuk
7
Ch’il
8
P’al
9
Ku
10
Sip
34
三十四 Samsipsa
100
Paek
1,000
Ch’on
10,000
Man
1,000,000
百萬 Paekman

Directions

oo

right (also "oh-ruen"; Un ro: “to the right”)

joa

left (also "wen"; Cha ro: “to the left”)

ahp

Front (Ahp ro: “forward”

ahn

inner

bahkat

outer

bahndae

reverse

dwi

Back (Ti tro: “backwards”

ahnuro

inward

bahkuro

outward

whee

high (up)

whee uro

upward

guande

middle

ulgool

high section (also "sahngdahn")

Mom tong

middle section (also "chungdahn")

ahrae

low section (also "hahdahn")

Basic Body Parts

mom

body

kwanjŏl

joint

ulgool

face & head

muh ree

head

noon

eye

gui

ear

ko

nose

in joong

philtrum

eep

mouth

tuhk

chin

mokoomŏng

throat

mok

neck

ouka

shoulder

myung chi

solar plexus

pahl

arm

pahlkup

elbow

pahlmahk

forearm

ahn pahlmahk

inner side of forearm

bahkat pahlmahk

outer side of forearm

meet pahlmahk

palm side of forearm

wi pahlmahk

back side of forearm

deung pahlmahk

back of forearm

sahnmahk

wrist

sahn

hand

sahnkal

outside edge of hand (knifehand)

sahnkal deung

inside edge of hand (ridgehand)

sahn deung

back hand

joomok

fist

sahnkahrak

finger

sahnkeut

fingertip

momtong

trunk (middle section)

huri

waist

ahrae

lower body (low section)

noolro

groin

dahree

leg

mooreup

knee

ahp jung kang yi

shin

bahl mahk

ankle

bahl

foot (or feet)

bahldung

instep

bahlbong oh ri

arch of foot

bahl nahl

outside edge of foot

an bahl nahl

inside edge of foot

bahl badak

sole of foot

ahp chook

ball of foot

dwi koomchi

heel

dwi chook

bottom of heel

bahlkeut

Toes

Body Movements

mom omgigi

movement of the body

mahki

block

chagi

kick

chirugi

thrust (or punch)

chigi

strike (with the hand)

jeek gi

strike (with the foot)

bahk gi

strike (with the head)

sahn ki sool

hand technique

bahl ki sool

foot technique

kyorugi

sparring

bituro

twisting

gamya

stepping (also "omkyuh didigi")

kuht neun

walking

uro

moving in a particular direction (e.g. "ahp uro gamya" - stepping forward)

bang hyang bakoogi

changing direction

bitkyuh surgi

escaping

tdwim yu

jumping

dora

to turn

dolmyo

spinning

mee keul myu

sliding (also "mee kul gi")

jupgi

holding/grabbing

donzigi

throwing

goorugi

rolling/tumbling

pyihagi

dodging

hecho

spreading

moyo

gathering

bojoo

covering

jajun

use of footwork to dodge a technique

nachugi

body evasion by "ducking"

Stances

Jah se

posture (or stance)

Joon bi

ready stance (also "pyŏnhi sohgi")

Chayon-se

natural stance (자연세)

O-Bŏp (“Five Methods”)

These are the five basic postures of Korean Sword.

Jung Dan Se

Middle Guard Position  ( )

Also: Chungmyeon Kyeonjok (중면  견적 )

Sang Dan Se

Superior Guard Position Offense ( ): Taedo-se with sword raised ready for Straight Descending Cut  (“chungmyôn Pegi”).

Aka: Choch’ôn-se: 조천세 (朝天勢)

Pal Dan Se

Superior Guard Position  Defense (八相勢)

Ûm Se

High Guard Position    )

Woo Dan Se

High Guard Position Right

Jwa Dan Se

High Guard Position  Left

Ha Dan Se

Low Guard Position  ( )

Yang Se

Rear Guard Position  ( )

Taedo Se

Greater Forward Stance (dae do beop 대도법 )

Aka. high stance   대도세 (大道勢)

Sodo Se

Lesser Forward Stance (so do beop소도법)

Aka. low stance   소도세 (小道勢); rear knee does not touch the ground.

Kima Se

horseback riding stance 기마세 (騎馬勢)

 (nae ga shin jang 내가신장) aka. Kima kyun jeok se 

Yeok-sodo-se

This is sodo-se when you turn your front foot outwards (sometimes when leading into a reverse spinning strike). Lit.: Reverse sodo-se

역소도세 (逆小道勢)

Geum gye dok lib pal sang se

Single-legged Posture: (Lit: “Golden rooster standing on one leg with 8 aspects where pal sang is shape from the old Chinese philosophy book Joo Yuk.)

 (鷄獨立八相勢)

also: "Crane Stance"

P’alsang-se

The sword is held vertically (normally) on the right side with the hilt at chest height. The arms will either be horizontal or vertical depending on the instructor. There is one major variation which is described below. 

( 팔상세)

Ûnnik-se

Cross-step  은닉세

Peom-se

Back stance (범세)

Jihase

Cho chin se

Bum kyun jeok se

Mi la Ger ki

Push walk

Shipja bo hang Bop

Fundamental walking step

Yea Ger ki

Substitution Step

Balyea Jip ki

Side-to-side  walk

 

Strike and Cutting

Chigi

Striking

Ap mori chigi

Striking the front of the head

Yang tchok mori chigi

Striking the side of the head (temple)

Son mok chigi

Striking at the wrist

Hori chigi

Striking at the torso

Pegi

Cuts   베기  (from “pe da”; “to cut”)

Tae kyok

Great strike –any cut made in a wide arc
대격 (大擊)

Sodo kyok

Lesser strike – a short snapping cut using only the wrists. (소도 격)

Chung myeon pegi

Straight or center cut;    

(中面) Or:   베기 (正面)

Chwa pegi

Left Diagonal Cut: Cut that pegins from above left shoulder and ends just outside right waist    

() 베기

U pegi

Right Diagonal Cut: Cut that pegins from above right shoulder and ends just outside left waist   

() 베기

Hwengdan pegi

Horizontal cut   횡단 (橫斷) 베기

(Lit: “traversing cut”

Heo Ri Pegi: waist height (허리베기)

Sang Dan Pegi: shoulder height (상단베기)

Jwa Ollyo pegi

Left Ascending Diagonal Cut ( 베기)

U Ollyo pegi

Right Ascending Diagonal Cut ( 베기)

Wesu pegi

One-handed cut

Chireugi

Thrust / stab   찌르기

Parries

Teum

Gap; “empty spot”; opportunity; “hole”

Rising Parry

Outside Parry

Inside Parry

Lower Parry

Standing Parry

Recumbent Parry

Panggyok

Blade held vertically to block an opponent’s thrust or cut. Lit.: Defending strike방격 (防擊)

High Inverted parry

Middle Inverted parry

Coiling Parry

Sword over the Spine

Hand Positions

sahnkal

knifehand

sahnkal jecho

knifehand with palm up

me joomuk

hammer-fist

Kicks

ahp chagi

:

Front Kick

yop chagi

:

Side Kick

:

Scoop Kick

:

Shin Kick

:

Knee Strike

Drills:

Warm-up and Preparation

Hu-rigi

Warm-up Drill    후리기

Sum go rugi

Basic Breathing Technique

Sam Dong Jak

Three Count Striking Drill

E Dong Jak

Two Count Striking Drill

Il Dong Jak

One Count Striking Drill

Paruen mori

Rapid striking Drill

Forms

Han bun kyorugi: One-Step Sparring

Kyeokkeom: Partner drills   격검 (擊劍)

O-Geom

        Chung Geom

        Hyo Geom

        Shin Geom

        Yong Geom

        In Geom

Pung Eui Geom Beop

Sa Bang Jok Sool Geom Beop

Bon Kuk Geom Beop:  (Native) Korean sword Method (본국검)

Choson Se-Beop

Kyo Jun Bo: Sword Sparring with Wae-geom   (교전

Equipment

Dobok Uniform ( 도복, 道服 )
Dhee Belt ( )
Otdori Top ( 옷도리 )
Maettiôp Tie  (매띠업 )
Paji Training  pants  ( 바지 )
Myŏn-soo-goon Scarf
Hogoo Chest  protector (also "bohogoo")  
Cup-schang Body Shield    
Cup Groin, Leg Shield (apron)
Hogu Armour (adopted from Kendo) refers to all the gear호구
Kapsang Waist protection   갑상   (?)
Kap Body armour  
Homyôn Helmet  호면 (?)
Howan Gloves  호환 (??)
Ttaeryôn-bok New flexible armour   때련복 (??)
eep bohodae Mouth guard

Juk-To

Bamboo sword.

Bamboo Sword    죽도 (竹刀)  Consists of four bamboo slats bound together by leather. In cross-section, these sticks form a circle, which is hollow inside. This empty space between bamboos allows them to move freely among each other. This feature is responsible for typical "hollow" sound of jookdo as well as for vibration reduction.The construction is identical to the bamboo sword used in Japanese Kendo called a Shinai. Juk-do has no sharp edges, since it's only purpose is training, both for conditioning and for sport competition. The Juk-To used in Kyokkum (sparring) varies in  length, depending on age, gender and technique. Swords for adults come in three major sizes.

Juk-To Parts

Sonchapi Leather covering for the hilt which is stitched tightly around bamboo slats.
Deongjul Yellow string stretching between the handle and the tip represents actual "blunt" side of the sword (Kaldung) suggesting that the opposite "sharp" side (Kalnal)  is for striking. The string helps distinguish which part is sharp, and which is blunt, since the sword is absoulutely round and symmetrical. It also has a great deal of stabilizing function as it pulls the hilt and the tip together.
Seonhyuk Leading tip of the juk-to is a cap, made of leather. It is connected to the string (Deongjul) which serves to keep the cap in place.
Chunghyuk a leather stripe tied around the sword about a third of a blade length from the tip (Seonhyuk). The space between the tip and this band marks the striking area of the sword, the  Takyokbuwi”.
Takyokbuwi The space between the tip (Seonhyuk) and the leather band (chunghyuk) marking the striking area of the sword. A strike by any part of Juk-To different from Takyokbuwi is not considered a valid strike.
Kodungi Sword guard consisting of two parts; the shield itself and a rubber ring fixing the guard in a single place on the sword.
Kodungibatchim Rubber ring fixing the guard in place on the sword.

Mok Geom

Wooden sword.

 The basic practice weapon in Geom-beop. This sword is meant to represent a live blade. It is usually made of some hard wood, is slightly curved, but without a sharp edge. Mok Geom are commonly about 40” (Eng) in length and may weigh as much as 600 grams. 목검 (木劍) 

Mok Geom Parts

Geom Keut Tip of the sword; ( ) 

also Geom ko (검고 )  

Mang Ji  (   ) Point of  the blade end

Jol Son    ( )   Rounded edge of the blade end  

Kyukchabu, Distal third of blade identified as the actual striking area of the blade;  also: Mul Ta (   )
Geom nal Blade (the sharp edge, i.e. business side of the sword)

also Nal Mu Nuwee  (    )

Geom deung Spine of the sword  검등 
Geom seom chap-hi Sword handle; may be a either plain glossy finish, or can be covered with a textile, leather or bound with cloth or leather tape. (검선잡히)

Jin Geom

Sharpened sword. (lit: “real sword”)

(親劍)

Jin Geom Parts

Kal Keut  End of the sword blade   ( )  

Mang Ji  (   ) Point of  the blade end

Jol Son    ( )   Rounded edge of the blade end    

Kyokchabu, Distal third of blade identified as the actual striking area of the blade.

Also: Mul Ta (   )  ……     (“cutting portion of the blade”

Kal Nal

 

Blade (the sharp edge of the sword) (  )

Also: Nal Mu Nuwee  (    )

Kal Be Ridge of the sword blade (  )
Kal Deung  Back or spine of the sword  ( )
Kalnal batchim Brass collar which is actually holding the guard tightly (as a fitting) on the blade and is located between the shield and the blade

Also: hwando magi ( )

Deotse Slender washer, or spacer,  between the batchim and the ko dung-I ( )
Ko dung-I   Sword Guard (    )

also: Pong Pe      

Hyeol-jo The shallow, narrow groove along the length of some blades.  

also: Hom ()

Terms associated with the Handle

Kal  jaru Sword handle; may be wooden and either plain, covered with a textile, leather tape or ray skin.  Hilt (   )

Also: Son Jap Yi  (   )

Ap Me Gi Upper binding spacer located behind the guard. (앞 메 기 )   
Sum Be Gum Ong Rivet or pin securing the hilt to the sword tang. ( )
Duit Me Gi A metal cap covering the end of the handle; pommel  ( )

Also: Kal jaru mo ri

Terms associated with the Sheath

Kal jib Scabbard or sheath:  ( )
Kaljip Ip Opening of the scabbard. (    )
Kaljip hyom Cord fixed to the scabbard and is used for fixing the scabbard to our belt. Also: jul
Garak ji Metal band (Two) for securing the sheath to its suspenders.

( )

Kaljip gori Eyelet in garakji to which the suspender is attached

 ( )

Kun mok Suspender (Two) by which the sheath is hung and carried. ( )
Tidon Clip affixing the suspenders to the person’s belt or clothing

 ( )

Kaljip keut Scabbard Tip;       (HRGB)

Weapons of the Mu Ye To Bo Tong Ji 

GEOM

() double-edged, single-handed, straight sword after the fashion of the Chinese JIAN, though with shorter blade and blunt tip.
NANG SEON  Multi-pointed spear.- (bamboo) ( )
KI CHANG  Flag Spear ( )
WAE GEOM  Japanese Sword (Katana) ( )
JUK JANG CHANG  Long Bamboo Spear ( )
JE DOK GEOM  Admiral's Straight [single edged] Sword  ( )
KON BONG  Staff  (곤봉) 
KWON BOP  Empty Hands Techniques  ( )
YE DO  (鋭刀) is a curved, single edged, a single-handed sabre similar to those used in China in the Ming through Qing dynasties.   ( )

Also:  ; Techniques for a ‘short sword’

WEOL DO  (月刀) a polearm known as the “crescent moon sword” and nearly identical to the  Zhanmadao from China.( )
DEUNG PAE  Shield; with a javelin and a sword  (등패)
JANG CHANG  Long Spear – 5 ft. (Chi)  ( )
DANG PA  Trident ( )
HYEOP DO  (侠刀) known as the “spear sword” it resembles a staff with a short blade affixed to the lead end. (협도)
PYEON KON  Korean Flail  ( )
SSANG SOO DO  (双手刀) a large, two-handed sabre

 Sword Handling

Wui Su

One-handed Technique

Ssangsoo

Two-handed Technique i.e. using a single sword with both hands   쌍수 (雙手)

K’otung-i ssaûm

When the opponents come close together with swords crossed and tussle to push the other back and give an opportunity for an strike or throw. Lit.: "Guard fight"   코둥이 싸음

Ssang geum

Double Sword Technique  쌍검 (雙劍

Daenamu pegi

Bamboo cutting   대나무베
Cheotbul Keugi Candle extinguishing   촛불끄기
Sinmunji pegi Newspaper slicing    신문지 베기
Kagmok charugi Board breaking     각목자르기  
Tollyôsô Rotate the sword vertically forward or backwards돌려서
Panggyeok Counter attack   방격 (防擊)
Yeokkeom Holding the sword with one, or both,  hands reversed   역검
kyorugi (free) sparring   겨루기
Sool Technique
Hyung Form

Common Phrases

ye

yes (also "ne")

anio

no

kahm sa hamnida

thank you  감사 (感謝) 합니다

komap sumnida

less formal form of "thank you"

chŏn maeneyo

you're welcome (literally "Don't mention it!")

cheuk ka hamnida

congratulations!

ahnyong hasimnika

How are you? (literally "Are you well?" or "Are you at peace?")

ahnyong hasayo

less formal form of "How are you?" 안녕 (安寧) 하세요

Sugo hasyôssumnida

You worked hard (usually at the end of practice, to the instructor and fellow students)  수고 하셨습니다

yoboseyo

hello (used on the phone or to get somone's attention; literally "Please look here!")

ahnyonghee gasipsiyo

good-bye (to the person who is leaving); literally "Go in peace!"

ahnyonghee gyesipsiyo

good-bye (to the person who is staying); literally "Stay in peace!"

ahnyonghee gasayo

less formal form of "good-bye" (to the person who is leaving)

ahnyonghee gyesayo

less formal form of "good-bye" (to the person who is staying.

Ch’ôum pwepkessumnida

Pleased to meet you (for the first time )

처음 뵙겠습니다

pangap seumnida

Pleased to meet you!

toh poepkesŏyo

See you later!

ŏsŏ osayo

Welcome!

choesong hamnida

I'm sorry

mian hamnida

less formal form of "I'm sorry!"

shillye hamnida

Excuse me! (asking forgiveness for an impolite act)

kwaen chanayo

That's all right

ahlge sŏyo

I understand

moreuge sŏyo

I don't understand

Posi

“Look” (보시 ) [ The instructor will say this when you change direction but fail to look first ]

Tachyôsoyo

I’m hurt (다졌어요 )

Kôn’gang haseyo?

Are you well? (  건강 (健康) 하세요? ) [as a greeting]

Chal chinassôyo

I am well ( 지났어요 )

Sôlmyong hae chuseyo

 Please explain that ( 설명 (說明) 하세요 )

ihae haessôyo

I understand ( 이해 (理解)  했어요 )

Arassayo

I understand and will do it that way next time

Towa chuseyo

Please help me ( 도와 주세요 )  

Kapsida

Lets go ( 갑시다 )

Oseyo

Please come here ( 오세요 )  

Hapsida

Lets do that ( 합시다 )

Tuseyo

Please eat / drink (to somŏne more senior than you) ( 두세요 )

Mokja

Lets eat (to somŏne of the same or lower position than you) 

( 먹자 )

Maseyo

Please drink (informal) ( 마세요 )  

chaemi issŏyo

It is fun (or interesting)!

Sugo hasyôssumnida

You worked hard (usually at the end of practice, to the fellow students)  수고 하셨습니다

Kûrôhchi

That’s correct (exclamation)   그렇지

Miscellanŏus Terms

dojang

place where one trains (house of discipline)

gong-kyok

offense

Chae yook kwan

fitness center (common term for martial arts school in Korea)

hosinsool

self-defense

kihap

Yell (기합   氣合)

jung shin yuk

mental strength, or martial art spirit (also "moodo jung shin")

jung shin dong il

concentration of the mind

jung shin soo yang

development (training) of the mind

jung do

the "right" way (correctness of action)

sim shin dahn ryun

mind and body discipline

chung myung kwon

development (training) of the body, mind, and spirit

chi shik

knowledge of mind and thoughts

heng dong

execution (action) of the body and its techniques

ho hyoop

breathing

shim ho hyoop

breathing control (deep breathing)

himm

force or power

ki

life-energy

dahnjun

the center of your "ki"

choong sim

center of gravity

chojum

focus (focal point) of your energy

jeung ga

increase (to strengthen or augment)

kyuk pa

breaking (the art of breaking boards, bricks, and tiles)

shibum

demonstration (or exhibition)

jung jhik

honesty

Hoin-Sek (Paek)

White   횐색 ( )   aka.  hin

Noran-Sek

Yellow   노란색 ( )

Ch’orok-Sek

Green   초록색 ()

P’aran-Sek

Blue   파란 ( )   aka. chung

Ppalgan-Sek

Red   빨간색 ( )   aka. hong

Pam-Sek

Brown   밤색

Kkaman-Sek

Black   까만색 ( )

Deh Han Min Kook

Republic of Korea. This is usually shortened to “Deh Han” which means the same.

Hyup Hae

association (often shortened to Hae)

 

boo sang

injury

 

P’algup hyôpyôki

Push ups  팔궆혀펴기

 

Utmom lrok’igi

Sit ups  웃몸일으키기

 

pyugi

stretching

Simsang

Lit.: Appearance of the heart = expression of the heart of a swordsman?   심상 (心相)

Ûmyang

Lit.: Light and shade, the Chinese Taoist concept of balance. Often, as here, poorly explained

   음양 (陰陽)

Ipsan suhaeng

Lit: Enter the mountain and exercise but normally used to mean particularly hard training in the mountains    입산수행 (入山修行)

Taegeuk

Taeguk literally means ‘great ultimate’ and now refers to the Korean national flag   대극 (大極)

Why Is the McCune-Reischauer System So "Complicated"?

The McCune-Reischauer system is a transcription system; it re-writes Korean words in the Latin alphabet based on their sound.  Readers illiterate in Korean have no way of knowing the sound of 독립 not to mention its meaning.   Transcription, or the recoding of  독립 as tongnip,  helps them to recognize and reproduce its sound.  (Its translation, independence, helps them to understand its meaning.)

While the function of the McCune-Reischauer system is straightforward--All it does is match each Korean consonant and vowel with the roman letter or letters equivalent in sound--the system is criticized for being too complicated to use.  There are two main reasons for such criticisms: the use of a diacritical (meaning distinguishing) mark for certain vowels and the use of multiple roman letters for some consonants. 

While it is true that the M-R system uses a diacritical mark and associates multiple roman letters for some consonants, these problems are hardly attributable to the M-R system.

First, Korean has more vowels than the Latin alphabet. Specifically,   and  do not have roman letters equivalent in sound. While o and u come close to these vowels, they are closer to and than to and .(1)   Consequently, these roman letters are reserved for and .  Since o and u cannot be used for and , it is impossible not to "create" new roman letters.  The McCune-Reischauer System does it efficiently by using a single diacritical mark over o and uŏ for and  ŭ for .  These letters are awkward but the M-R system should not be to blame for them.  And although ŏ and ŭ were hard to type in the past, today,  most word-processing programs can handle these letters easily.

Second, some Korean consonants represent two or more different sounds depending on their position in a word or phrase.(2) A different roman letter is then required to represent each sound.  (Korean vowels, on the other hand, do not change their sounds.)  Sound changes are confusing and inconvenient but the M-R system should not be to blame for them.

Example)  is pronounced as k in or , g in , or ng in .
 

 "The Romanization of Korean According to the McCune-Reischauer System," Transactions of the  Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society  38, 1961, p. 128.

Simplified Table vs. Comprehensive Chart of the M-R System

While the simplified table is sufficient for the transcription of most proper names,  the comprehensive chart covers irregularities in consonant combinations:

Step-by-Step Romanization of 독립 according to the M-R System

The above tables do appear complicated but such appearance is misleading. They are actually much simpler and easier to use than they first appear.  The following exercise is intended to prove this point.   

독립 can be disaggregated into   + and then further into   +   + + +  + and are underlined to indicate the possibility of sound change. 

(1). in is an initial consonant with no preceding final consonant. The roman letter for such is T(1) in the consonant table below.  (All other roman letters in the column are for initial consonant preceded by final consonants in previous syllables.)
(2)
 The roman letter for in is o(2) in the vowel table below
(3) in is a final consonant followed by an initial consonant in .  The roman letters for this - pair are to be found at the intersection of  the row and the column:  NGN(3)
(4)
The roman letter for in   is i(4) in the vowel table.
(5) Finally, in is a final consonant followed by no initial consonant.  The roman letter for such is P(5) in the row. (All other roman letters in the  row are for final consonant followed by initial consonants in the next syllables.)
(6) The final outcome is tongnip.

Simplified Table of the McCune-Reischauer System

Consonant Table

Row: Initial
Column: Final

*

K

N

T (1)

(R)

M

P

S

CH

CH'

K'

T'

P'

H

K

G

KK

NGN

KT

NGN(3)

NGM

KP

KS

KCH

KCH'

KK'

KT'

KP'

KH

N

N

N'G

NN

ND

LL

NM

NB

NS

NJ

NCH'

NK'

NT'

NP'

NH

L

R

LG

LL

LT

LL

LM

LB

LS

LCH

LCH'

LK'

LT'

LP'

RH

M

M

MG

MN

MD

MN

MM

MB

MS

MJ

MCH'

MK'

MT'

MP'

MH

P(5)

B

PK

MN

PT

MN

MM

PP

PS

PCH

PCH'

PK'

PT'

PP'

PH

NG

NG

NGG

NGN

NGD

NGN

NGM

NGB

NGS

NGJ

NGCH'

NGK'

NGT'

NGP'

NGH

Vowel Table

a

ya

ŏ

o(2)

yo

u

yu

ŭ

i(4)

wa

ae

e

oe

wi

ŭi

wae

we

yae

ye